Direct insertion of DNA or proteins into cells using a capillary glass cannula
Microinjection directly delivers the contents of a specially designed glass cannula into a cell.
Scientists are currently working on developing microinjection techniques for transferring genes to plant cells.
At this point, microinjection is mostly performed on animal cells. It is less suitable for plant cells because of their higher internal pressure. When plant cells are punctured, its internal pressure is lost, and the cell subsequently dies.